Background New York State (NYS) has been an epicenter for both COVID-19 and HIV/AIDS epidemics. Persons Living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) may be more prone to COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes, yet few population-based studies have assessed the extent to which PLWDH are diagnosed, hospitalized, and have died with COVID-19, relative to non-PLWDH.
Methods NYS HIV surveillance, COVID-19 laboratory confirmed diagnoses, and hospitalization databases were matched. COVID-19 diagnoses, hospitalization, and in-hospital death rates comparing PLWDH to non-PLWDH were computed, with unadjusted rate ratios (RR) and indirect standardized RR (sRR), adjusting for sex, age, and region. Adjusted RR (aRR) for outcomes among PLWDH were assessed by age/CD4-defined HIV disease stage, and viral load suppression, using Poisson regression models.
Results From March 1-June 7, 2020, PLWDH were more frequently diagnosed with COVID-19 than non-PLWDH in unadjusted (RR [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.43[1.38-1.48), 2,988 PLWDH], but not in adjusted comparisons (sRR [95% CI]: 0.94[0.91-0.97]). Per-population COVID-19 hospitalization was higher among PLWDH (RR [95% CI]: 2.61[2.45-2.79], sRR [95% CI]: 1.38[1.29-1.47], 896 PLWDH), as was in-hospital death (RR [95% CI]: 2.55[2.22-2.93], sRR [95%CI]: 1.23 [1.07-1.40], 207 PLWDH), albeit not among those hospitalized (sRR [95% CI]: 0.96[0.83-1.09]). Among PLWDH, hospitalization risk increased with disease progression from HIV Stage 1 to Stage 2 (aRR [95% CI]:1.27[1.09-1.47]) and Stage 3 (aRR [95% CI]: 1.54[1.24-1.91]), and for those virally unsuppressed (aRR [95% CI]: 1.54[1.24-1.91]).