Evolving patterns of antiretroviral drug interactions in people living with HIV in British Columbia, Canada



To characterize the annual prevalence of antiretroviral/non-antiretroviral drug interactions (DIs) in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescribing patterns, and to describe DI-related ART changes.


This cohort study included ART-treated adults in British Columbia, Canada between 01-Jan-2010 and 31-Dec-2016. Medication dispensing records were abstracted from a population-based, linked administrative-health dataset and used to identify antiretroviral-comedication DIs (“caution”/“avoid” DIs in HIV-focused DI-checkers). We identified temporal trends in annual DI prevalence and quantified the association between taking higher DI-risk ART and receiving non-recommended antiretroviral-comedication combinations using Poisson regression models, modified for binary outcomes and correlated data. Clinician-reported, DI-related ART changes and associated adverse events were abstracted from an HIV drug treatment registry and summarized descriptively.


Among 8571 ART-treated adults who received non-antiretroviral comedications, prevalence of having any DI or receiving non-recommended drug combination(s) significantly declined from 85% to 71% and 5.6% to 3.2%, respectively, between 2010 and 2016 (p < 0.001). This paralleled a shift from higher DI-risk ART (e.g. ritonavir/cobicistat-boosted protease inhibitors) to lower DI-risk ART (e.g. unboosted integrase inhibitors). Risk of receiving a non-recommended antiretroviral-comedication combination was greater for persons taking higher versus lower DI-risk ART (aRR 3.12, 95%CI 2.24–4.35). Boosted antiretroviral-inhaled corticosteroid DIs accounted for the most commonly dispensed, non-recommended drug combinations, and the most commonly reported DI-related adverse events (adrenal insufficiency).


The prevalence of antiretroviral-comedication DIs is declining as ART shifts towards antiretrovirals with lower DI potential, but non-recommended drug combinations remain a concern. Healthcare providers should screen for DIs whenever drugs are prescribed or dispensed.

Auteur(s) : Lepik, K. J., et al.