Men who have sex with men (MSM) initiating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may increase condomless anal sex (CAS) and number of partners, and, consequently, more often acquire sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using data from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, we compared sexual behavior and STI among MSM after PrEP-initiation with controls not initiating PrEP. The MSM reported on sexual behavior and were tested for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis semi-annually. We matched MSM who initiated PrEP between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 1:1 to MSM who did not use time-dependent propensity scores based on age, sexual behavior, and STI. Primary end-points were number of casual partners, and proportion with CAS and receptive CAS (rCAS) with casual partners, sexualized drug use (SDU), any STI, and anal STI. We modeled end-points during the 4 years before and 2 years after PrEP-initiation or matched PrEP-initiation timepoint by using logistic regression (dichotomous end-points) or negative binomial regression (count end-point), adjusted for calendar year. Two hundred twenty-eight out of the 858 (26.6%) MSM initiated PrEP. We matched 198 out of 228 (86.8%) to a control. Before PrEP-initiation, end-points increased over time in both groups, with no statistically significant difference. The odds of CAS, rCAS, and anal STI were on average higher after than before PrEP-initiation in PrEP initiators, whereas after versus before differences were not observed in controls. After PrEP-initiation, PrEP initiators had statistically significantly more casual partners, and higher odds of CAS, rCAS, SDU, any STI, and anal STI than controls. These findings support frequent STI screening and counseling in MSM using PrEP.