Standard-dose, seasonal, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine induces moderate-to-low haemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses in people living with HIV. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of different dosing schedules of inactivated influenza vaccine in pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa.
In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we recruited pregnant women with HIV from seven antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa. Pregnant women were eligible if they were aged 18–38 years, infected with HIV, and had an estimated gestational age of 12–36 weeks. Women were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using a computer-generated randomisation list, to receive inactivated influenza vaccine containing 15 μg of each of the three seasonal influenza strains for that year, as a single dose, a double dose, or two single doses 1 month apart. Participants and study personnel were masked to group allocation. Haemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses were measured for all groups in the mothers at enrolment and at 1 month after each vaccine dose, and in the single-dose and double-dose groups within 7 days of birth in the neonates. Immunogenicity analyses only included women with visits 28–35 days apart and infants who were born at least 28 days after maternal immunisation. The primary was seroconversion rate to each of the vaccine strains in the mothers 1 month after completion of the dosing schedule, and the primary safety outcomes were frequency of local and systemic reactions. Safety was assessed in mothers and infants until 24 weeks post partum and analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of vaccine. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov
, and is closed to accrual.
Between Feb 11, and June 6, 2013, 800 pregnant women living with HIV were enrolled and randomly assigned to the single-dose (n=266), double-dose (n=265), or two-single-doses (n=269) group. In the analysable population, seroconversion rates in mothers 1 month after the final vaccine dose were significantly higher in the double-dose group (n=230; ranging from 29% to 65% for the three vaccine strains) than in the single-dose group (n=230; ranging from 18% to 49%; p≤0·019 for the three vaccine strains), but were similar between the two-single-doses group (n=220; ranging from 23% to 52%) and the single-dose group (p≥0·20 for the three vaccine strains). Safety outcomes were similar in the three groups, except for more injection-site reactions in recipients in the double-dose group.
A regimen of double-dose inactivated influenza vaccine gave slightly greater immunogenicity than did a single-dose regimen in pregnant women living with HIV. However, immunogenicity in the double-dose group was still lower than historical data from the same setting in pregnant women without HIV. More immunogenic vaccines are needed for pregnant women living with HIV to enhance transplacental transfer of vaccine-induced protective antibodies to their newborn infants.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.